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The series of cell divisions immediately after fertilization is called

Step-by-step solution: Step 1 of 4 The day after fertilization the zygote undergoes rapid series of mitotic cell divisions known as the cleavage. Hence, the option c is correct After fertilization, the sperm and egg become a zygote, which then begins a number of cell divisions called. cleavage. rapid mitotic cell division of the zygote that begins immediately after fertilization. cleavage. Cell's cytoplasm start to divide (pinching in cytokinesis) cleavage

After fertilization, the zygote begins the process of becoming a multicellular organism. After the zygote divides once and reaches the 2 cell stage, a series of mitotic divisions called ____ results in an increase in cell number, but not in cell size. cleavage. After the third cleavage division, cells become tightly compacted into a ball 2. Blankcells that can undergo specialization to become any type of body cell are called: a. blood cells c. sex cells b. stem cells d. egg cells 3. The series of rapid cell divisions that occur immediately after zygote formation is known as a. fertilization c. meiosis b. cleavage d. differentiation 4. Gastrulation is the By about 3 days after fertilization, while still in the uterine tube, the embryo contains 12 to 16 cells configured as a solid ball of cells and is called a morula (mor'u-la) [Fig ss] 6

Soon after fertilization, the zygote undergoes a series of

of fertilization is to combinethe haploid sets of chromosomes from two individuals into a single diploid cell, the zygote. In addition, fertilization activates the egg. Egg activation blocks entry by additional sperm, stimulates the final meiotic division, an Following penetration, a series of events set the stage for the first cell division. The single-cell embryo is called a zygote. Over the course of the next seven days, the human embryo undergoes multiple cell divisions in a process called mitosis. approximately five to six days after fertilization, it hatches out of its zona pellucida and. 4. The thing that happens during cleavage is a series of mitotic divisions that immediately follow fertilization. During cleavage, the enormous volume of zygote cytoplasm is divided into numerous smaller cells called blastomeres. By the end of cleavage, the blastomeres have usually formed a sphere, known as a blastula. 5 Once the sperm fuses with the oocyte's membrane, it triggers the completion of meiosis II. Once meiosis II is completed, the oocyte's nuclear material reorganizes to form a structure called a..

The development of multi-cellular organisms begins from a single-celled zygote, which undergoes rapid cell division to form the blastula. The rapid, multiple rounds of cell division are termed cleavage. After the cleavage has produced over 100 cells, the embryo is called a blastula This membrane arises immediately after the penetration of a sperm cell and prevents further attempts of fertilization by other sperm cells. The space between the membrane and the yolk is called the perivitelline area. (Both structures are not clearly visible here, but remnants of the fertilization membrane are indicated with 1)

Fertilization - Fertilization - Events of fertilization: The acrosome reaction of spermatozoa is a prerequisite for the association between a spermatozoon and an egg, which occurs through fusion of their plasma membranes. After a spermatozoon comes in contact with an egg, the acrosome, which is a prominence at the anterior tip of the spermatozoa, undergoes a series of well-defined structural. The cell cycle is an ordered series of events involving cell growth and cell division that produces two new daughter cells. Cells on the path to cell division proceed through a series of precisely timed and carefully regulated stages of growth, DNA replication, and division that produce two genetically identical cells Cleavage and Blastula Stage. The development of multi-cellular organisms begins from a single-celled zygote, which undergoes rapid cell division to form the blastula. The rapid, multiple rounds of cell division are termed cleavage. After the cleavage has produced over 100 cells, the embryo is called a blastula

Fertilization Flashcards - Quizle

Reproduction - Reproduction - Life-cycle reproduction: Although organisms are often thought of only as adults, and reproduction is considered to be the formation of a new adult resembling the adult of the previous generation, a living organism, in reality, is an organism for its entire life cycle, from fertilized egg to adult, not for just one short part of that cycle human zygote (and subsequently all other body cells) is 46 chromosomes; the haploid complement of each gamete is 23 chromosomes. After fertilization, the zygote gives rise to all the cells that make up the organism by repeated cell divisions, called mitosis. In multicellular organisms, mitosis permits growth and repair of tissues The fusion of the male and female haploid pronuclei following fertilization produces a single diploid nucleus capable of beginning its first mitotic cycle almost immediately. However, cell division at this early stage does not also grow; rather, the embryo divides every 12 to 24 hours to create smaller individual cells known as blastomeres

Video: chapter 29 Flashcards Quizle

  1. After fertilization, tomato fruit development proceeds through several stages. In the first stage, rapid cell division follows immediately after fertilization, leading to a progressive increase in pericarp cell number. The end of this stage is marked by a sharp fall in the rate of cell division, which occurs after 2 weeks of pollination
  2. g a hollow ball of cells called a blastocyst. The blastocyst implants in the wall of the uterus about 6 days after fertilization. If more than one egg is released and fertilized, the pregnancy involves more than one fetus, usually two (twins)
  3. The rapid mitotic cell division of the zygote that occurs immediately after fertilization is called A) development. B) differentiation. C) gravidation. D) cleavage. E) cytokinesis. Answer: D Reference: Embryonic Period Level of Difficulty: Medium 10. Successive cleavages produce a solid mass of tiny cells called A) embryo. B) blastocyst. C.
  4. Are fertilized by one sperm cell. 9-The rapid mitotic cell divisions of the zygote that occur immediately after fertilization are called a. Development. b. Differentiation. c. Gravidation. d. Cleavage. e. Cytokinesis. 10-Successive cleavages of the zygote produce a solid sphere of small cells called the a. Embryo. b. Blastocyst. c. Morula. d.

The First Week Prenatal Overvie

Fertilization, union of a paternal sperm nucleus with a maternal egg nucleus to form the primary nucleus of an embryo. In higher organisms the essence of fertilization is the fusion of the hereditary material of two different sex cells. Learn about the process of fertilization in this article followed by a series of rapid cell divisions without cell growth known as cleavage (Figure 4). Essentially the cytoplasm of each cell is divided into smaller and smaller cells called blastomeres. During these continual cell divisions, the total intracellular volume of the embryo itself remains unchanged, but the number of cells within the. Abstract. The C. elegans embryo is a powerful model system for studying the mechanics of metazoan cell division. Its primary advantage is that the architecture of the syncytial gonad makes it possible to use RNAi to generate oocytes whose cytoplasm is reproducibly (typically > 95%) depleted of targeted essential gene products via a process that does not depend exclusively on intrinsic protein.

First Week of Development Boundless Anatomy and Physiolog

  1. ant throughout the dehydrated through an ethanol series and critical
  2. Following fertilization, a sequence of cell divisions results in the formation of the early embryo. The zygote begins to divide mitotically (cleavage), and the resulting cells are termed blastomeres. As long as cleavage progresses, the cells proliferate and become progressively smaller, and the fetal size and general shape remains the same ( 73 )
  3. 2-5 potency: description of the range of cell types that can arise from an individual cell. totipotent: describes a single cell which is capable of making the whole embryo - a stem cell. During cleavage divisions there is a loss of potency with time. Stem cells retain high levels of potency. For example, the pluripotential stem cell in the bone marrow gives rise to all of th

The Stages of Mitosis and Cell Division - ThoughtC

embryo: [ em´bre-o ] a new organism in the earliest stage of development. In humans this is defined as the developing organism from the fourth day after fertilization to the end of the eighth week. After that the unborn baby is usually referred to as the fetus . adj., adj em´bryonal, embryon´ic. Immediately after fertilization takes place,. Many animals, including frogs and zebrafish, undergo a series of rapid, synchronized cellular divisions after fertilization. These divisions generate a ball of cells, called a blastula, which occupies the same volume as the egg (Tadros and Lipshitz, 2009). Flies undergo a similar process but without cytokinesis - remove contaminating cells and debris Usually, motile sperm are added to oocytes at a concentration of 100,000 sperm/ml. This stage takes place immediately after fertilization before the gametes have fused, and is visible for a short time at 18-22 hours after fertilization somite embryo: an embryo in any stage of development between the formation of the first and the last pairs of somites, which in humans occurs in the third and fourth weeks after fertilization of the ovum

The process of fertilization is a daunting task and can take up to 24 hours. It consists of the sperm penetrating the egg's shell, fusing with its cytoplasm, and triggering a series of genetic divisions. At fertilization, the entire genetic make-up of a baby, including the gender, is determined A zygote, also known as a fertilized ovum or fertilized egg, is the union of a sperm cell and an egg cell. The zygote begins as a single cell but divides rapidly in the days following fertilization. The zygote's single cell contains all of the 46 necessary chromosomes, getting 23 from the sperm and 23 from the egg organism. Gametes are produced by a type of cell division called meiosis, which is described in detail below. The process in which two gametes unite is called fertilization. The fertilized cell that results is referred to as a zygote. A zygote is diploid cell, which means that it has twice the number of chromosomes as a gamete Philosophically, virtually any claim for so-called delayed personhood—that is, personhood does not start until some point after fertilization—involves the theoretical disaster of accepting that the idea or concept of a mind/body split has any correlate or reflects the real world. Historically this problem was simply the consequence of. Human Biology: Fertilization through Birth. Fertilization, the joining of sperm and egg, typically occurs in the fallopian tube, after sperm have made the long swim up through the vagina, past the cervix, and through the uterus. Fertilization brings together the chromosomes from each parent, creating the first cell, or zygote, of the new human

Animal Development I: Fertilization & Cleavage

  1. The importance of cell division can be appreciated by realizing the following facts: 1. Cell division is a pre-requisite for the continuity of life and forms the basis of evolution to various life forms. 2. In unicellular organisms, cell division is the means of asexual reproduction, which produces two or more new individuals from the mother cell
  2. Cleavage definition, the act of cleaving or splitting. See more
  3. A gamete produced by a female is called an egg, and the process that produces a mature egg is called oogenesis. Just one egg is produced from the four haploid cells that result from meiosis. The single egg is a very large cell, as you can see from the human egg also shown in Figure 7.5. 5
  4. The development of multi-cellular organisms begins from a single-celled zygote, which undergoes rapid cell division to form the blastula. The rapid, multiple rounds of cell division are termed cleavage. Cleavage is illustrated in (Figure 24.24 a). After the cleavage has produced over 100 cells, the embryo is called a blastula
  5. C. elegans has emerged as a highly amenable model system for the study of oogenesis, fertilization and embryogenesis. One of the key advantages of this system is the ability to observe directly all of these processes within the intact living animal. In C. elegans, the germ cells of adult hermaphrodites are contained within a U-shaped tubular gonad (McCarter et al., 1999) (see Fig. 1D)
  6. 35. 4.2 Meiosis and Gametogenesis. Sexual reproduction requires fertilization, a union of two cells from two individual organisms. If those two cells each contain one set of chromosomes, then the resulting cell contains two sets of chromosomes. The number of sets of chromosomes in a cell is called its ploidy
  7. In most eukaryotes, centromeric histone (CenH3) proteins mediate mitosis and meiosis and ensure epigenetic inheritance of centromere identity. We hypothesized that disparate chromatin environments in soma versus germline might impose divergent functional requirements on single CenH3 genes, which could be ameliorated by gene duplications and subsequent specialization

Chapter 13B. Fertilization and Cleavag

  1. 1. Fertilization cone formation: Immediately after the acrosomal filament of spermatozoon touches the surface of the egg, the cytoplasm of the egg bulges forward at the point of contact, producing a process of hyaline cytoplasm called the fertilization cone. Fertilization cone develops or appears in many forms
  2. gling of the maternal and paternal chromosomes. 33
  3. Animal development - Animal development - Embryo formation: Since the goal of development is the production of a multicellular organism, many cells must be produced from the single-celled zygote. This task is accomplished by cleavage, a series of consecutive cell divisions. Cells produced during cleavage are called blastomeres. The divisions are mitotic—i.e., each chromosome in the nucleus.

Conception: How It Works Patient Education UCSF Healt

Surrounding the nucleus is a cell plasma, or yolk, that contains nutritional elements essential to the developing egg cell. If an egg does not become fertilized within 24 hours of its eruption, it begins to degenerate. After the egg is fertilized it undergoes a series of cell divisions The nuclear membrane and nucleolus reappear and 2 haploid daughter nuclei are formed. This is called diad. After this, cytokinesis may or may not occur. After a short interphase, it is followed by meiosis II. This short stage between the two meiotic divisions is called interkinesis. DNA replication does not occur in this phase Oocyte is a cell in an ovary which may undergo meiotic division to form an ovum. As oocytes of certai n organisms differentiate they acquire, among other things, external coverings that are important prior to and during the interval between fertilization and emergence of a viable organism.. The envelopes / membranes of the oocyte: A Primary egg membrane is produced from ovarian cytoplasm

After fertilization the cells of the embryo inherit these molecular asymmetries when they contribute to the formation of the ectoderm, the mesoderm, and the endoderm germ layers. (b) After fertilization asymmetry in the dorso/anterior to ventral/posterior dimension is established as a result of cortical rotation (Gerhart et al. 1989; Houston 2012) After approximately 30 hours from the time of fertilization, a fusion of the pronuclei and immediate mitotic division produce two 2n diploid daughter cells called blastomeres. [2] Between the stages of fertilization and implantation , the developing human is a preimplantation conceptus

Gamete. A reproductive (sex) cell. In females, egg; in males, sperm. Fertilization. The process in sexual reproduction in which a female gamete and male gamete fuse to form a new cell. Zygote. Cell resulting from fertilization. Diploid (2n) Cell that contains two sets of homologous chromosomes Sexual reproduction requires that diploid organisms produce haploid cells that can fuse during fertilization to form diploid offspring. As with mitosis, DNA replication occurs prior to meiosis during the S-phase of the cell cycle. Meiosis is a series of events that arrange and separate chromosomes and chromatids into daughter cells 16 HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Fertilization begins with the fusion of sperm and egg cell to form a fertilized egg called a zygote. A series of cell division will take place as the zygote travels down the fallopian tube going to the uterus. The journey will take about 6 to 7 days after fertilization. The zygote is like a ball of cells attached itself to the uterine lining (endometrium) of the. The oocyte is arrested in cell division prior to the second meiotic division, which only occurs after fertilization. Key Terms. polar body: A small haploid cell formed concomitantly as an egg cell during oogenesis, but which does not have the ability to be fertilized. ootid: A nearly mature ovum that results from meiotic division of a secondary. At the end of the first meiotic division, a haploid cell is produced called a secondary spermatocyte. This haploid cell must go through another meiotic cell division. The cell produced at the end of meiosis is called a spermatid. When it reaches the lumen of the tubule and grows a flagellum (or tail), it is called a sperm cell

Solved: 1. The Major Stages Of Human Development Is Fertil ..

Immediately after its fertilization, the ovum enters upon a series of cellular mitotic divisions called segmentation or cleavage. Marked variations in the details of cleavage occur in eggs of different species, apparently largely dependent on the amount of yolk present and its distribution within the egg • Compaction: Just prior to forming a morula is a compaction stage. At this time an 8-cell embryo undergoes a series of changes that transform the zygote into a solid ball of cells. • Morula: A grouping of a solid mass of 12 -15 cells resembling a blackberry. This forms around four days post-fertilization The blastocyst has an inner cell mass that forms the future embryo and is covered with the outer covering of cells called the trophoblast. Immediately after gastrulation: a) the embryo. Following fertilization, the oocyte and sperm pronuclei fuse and undergo a series of divisions without cytokinesis (cell divisions). 2. The first 7 divisions occur within the central yolk regions, while the next 3 divisions occur during the movement of the nuclei to the periphery. An hour after fertilization the Right after fertilization, a series of cell divisions makes a hollow ball of cells called a blastula. In this lesson we'll look at the stage called cell fate specification and explore how this.

The cell cycle is an orderly sequence of events. Cells on the path to cell division proceed through a series of precisely timed and carefully regulated stages. In eukaryotes, the cell cycle consists of a long preparatory period, called interphase. Interphase is divided into G 1, S, and G 2 phases As in all many-celled animals, the microscopic fertilized eggs begin a series of cell divisions which finally result in an embryo. However, the embryo does not develop directly into a baby jellyfish, but becomes a tiny, flattened creature called a 'Planula' At 3 weeks pregnant, the fertilized egg, or zygote, measures 0.1 millimeters (mm), and it is too small to see. The zygote will spend several days making its way down the fallopian tube

This process is called gastrulation. After fertilization, when the egg is still in the oviduct, it begins to divide by mitosis to form a hollow fluid filled ball of cells called the ~. This process is called cleavage. When it reaches the uterus (womb) 6 or 7 days after fertilization, it embeds (implants) in the uterine lining (endometrium) 5.2 Meiosis and Gametogenesis. Sexual reproduction requires fertilization, a union of two cells from two individual organisms. If those two cells each contain one set of chromosomes, then the resulting cell contains two sets of chromosomes. The number of sets of chromosomes in a cell is called its ploidy level 4.2.2 Females. Female germ cell differentiation operates under a two-phase time course dramatically different from that found in the male. 23 By the twelfth or thirteenth day after fertilization, the primordial oocytes within the fetal ovary have undergone their last mitotic division and are referred to as oogonia

Those cells that produce the internal organs are all forced into the interior by directive cell divisions. When all the parts have come to their final positions, the embryo elongates into a miniature adult and then hatches. No more cell divisions are thought to occur after hatching, except in the ovary and testis and perhaps in the epidermis Immediately after conception, the embryonic development begins in the fallopian tube. As the zygote moves from the fallopian tube down towards the uterus, it starts dividing by successive nuclear and cell division resulting in the formation of a small multicellular ball of cells by the process called cleavage The eggs are monitored to confirm that fertilization and cell division are taking place. Once this occurs, the fertilized eggs are considered embryos. Step 5: The embryos are usually transferred into the woman's uterus three to five days following egg retrieval and fertilization. A catheter or small tube is inserted into the uterus to.

Fertilization: Oocyte Activation & Cell Cleavage - Video

Fertilization is completed by the syngamic phase after successful fusion of one sperm cell with the egg cell and the second sperm cell with the central cell, respectively. The pollen tube is an invention of seed plants and it plays a major role in signaling during fertilization. Its main task is to deliver two sperm cells to accomplish double. Over one third of all animal phyla utilize a mode of early embryogenesis called 'spiral cleavage' to divide the fertilized egg into embryonic cells with different cell fates. This mode is characterized by a series of invariant, stereotypic, asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs) that generates cells of different size and defined position within the early embryo Cytokinesis ends the cell division process. Whether the cell was eukaryotic or prokaryotic, these basic events must occur. Cytokinesis is the process where one cell splits off from its sister cell. It usually occurs after cell division. The Cell Cycle is the sequence of growth, DNA replication, growth and cell division that all cells go through

Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development Boundless

Cells begin dividing, and a fetus starts to develop. However, pinpointing exactly when conception begins is hard to do, because sperm can rest in a woman's body for several days after ejaculation. Fertilization. Fertilization is the process by which the nucleus of a sperm (a male reproductive cell) fuses (combines) with the nucleus of an egg (a female reproductive cell; also called an ovum). Fertilization occurs somewhat differently in plants and animals. In flowering plants, two sperm cells are involved in the process of fertilization Embryonic development also embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo forms and develops. In mammals, the term refers chiefly to early stages of prenatal development, whereas the terms fetus and fetal development describe later stages. Embryonic development starts with the fertilization of the egg cell (ovum) by a sperm cell, (spermatozoon). Once fertilized, the ovum is referred to as a. Definition : Fusion of a haploid male gamete (spermatozoan) and a haploid female gamete (ovum) to form a diploid cell, the zygote, is called fertilization or syngamy. Site of fertilization : Fertilization in human female is internal as in other mammals.It takes place usually in the ampulla of the fallopian tube. Steps of fertilization (1) Approach of sperm to ovum : Male discharge semen (3.5. The gametic nuclei replicated to 2C prior to fertilization; hence there was no S-period in the 4C fertilization nucleus (synkaryon). The first postzygotic division products immediately entered an S-period to become 4C, and at the second postzygotic division, each of the two 4C nuclei in each conjugant divided to form one 2C micronucleus and one.

Embryology of the sea urchin: stages - Radboud Universitei

This arrest is facilitated by a complex called Cytostatic Factor (CSF). After fertilization, the sperm induces a rise in intracellular calcium ion which activates and enzyme, Calmodulin Kinase II. This complex, through a series of phosphorylation and ubiquitination, degrades the CSF comples and in turn, activates APC (Anaphase Promoting Complex) Together, the oocyte and granulosa cells are called the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC). The innermost cell layers of the cumulus immediately overlying the zona pellucida of the oocyte are called the coronal cells. After cumulus maturation, the same cells are called the corona radiata because of their sunburst appearance

Fertilization - Events of fertilization Britannic

Phases of the Cell Cycle. A typical eukaryotic cell cycle is illustrated by human cells in culture, which divide approximately every 24 hours. As viewed in the microscope, the cell cycle is divided into two basic parts: mitosis and interphase.Mitosis (nuclear division) is the most dramatic stage of the cell cycle, corresponding to the separation of daughter chromosomes and usually ending with. Immediately after gastrulation, the body axis of the embryo begins to appear. Chordates have the cells that will form the nervous system fold into a neural tube (which will eventually form the spinal cord). The mesoderm forms the notochord (which will eventually form the vertebrae) Immediately after its fertilization the ovum enters upon a series of mitotic divisions which occur in close succession. This series of divisions constitutes the process of segmentation or cleavage. In birds segmentation takes place before the egg is laid, during the time it is traversing the oviduct In the male embryo, primitive germ cells soon stop their divisions after colonizing the primitive testicle and enter a period of mitotic quiescence. Quiescent male germ cells are called prosper-matogonia or gonocytes (De Felici, 2009), and they remain in their mitotic slumber until th The Process of Implantation of Embryos in Primates. Implantation is a process in which a developing embryo, moving as a blastocyst through a uterus, makes contact with the uterine wall and remains attached to it until birth. The lining of the uterus ( endometrium) prepares for the developing blastocyst to attach to it via many internal changes

4.7 The Cell Cycle - Human Biology 2nd editio

Fusion of sex cells in multicellular animals: In multicellular animals, as a result of this fusion of sex cells, the fertilized egg is said to have become active to start embryonic development.Further, as a result of fusion of the two haploid nuclei of sperm and ovum required to form diploid zygote, the diploid zygote receives hereditary characters of both the parent's for the next generation Cell Division Definition. The process by which a cell distributes its genetic material (DNA) and cytoplasm to daughter cells. Description. In higher organisms, including humans, there are two types of cell division, mitosis and meiosis.Strictly speaking, mitosis and meiosis refer to division of the DNA and associated materials in the nucleus of the cell With fertilization, the ovum becomes the zygote or embryo and now passes through complex phases of cell division and differentiation. You have just conceived! Implantation: It's often thought that fertilization and conception are synonymous with pregnancy. However, at this stage, the zygote is free-floating in the womb In the wild type, the haploid microspores derived from a microspore mother cell undergo two rounds of mitotic divisions (Fig. 2a-e). After the first division, the developing gametophyte contains. After fertilization the following changes have occurred: After fertilization, a series of events occurs in the zygote to develop into a seed. (i) The ovary turns into a fruit. This procedure is called germination. Germination is the procedure of a seed sprouting and its growth into a young plant

43.5B: Cleavage, the Blastula Stage, and Gastrulation ..

During development, in both the naturally conceived and the clonal embryos, repeated divisions of the embryo continue to increase the number of cells until they then begin to specialize and organize into an adult. Specialization during development is called differentiation. Differentiation is a continual process In Drosophila, the cellular blastoderm consists of approximately 6000 cells and is formed within 4 hours of fertilization. 4. The Midblastula Transition. After the nuclei reach the periphery, the time required to complete each of the next four divisions becomes progressively longer The cells of the inner cell mass are initially still totipotent. Monozygotic twinning (embryo splitting) of this embryo can take place both before and after 14-days. In monozygotic twinning, 30% takes place before an inner cell mass is formed; 70% takes place by division of an inner cell mass Double fertilization is a complex process where out of two sperm cells, one fuses with the egg cell and the other fuses with two polar nuclei which result in a diploid (2n) zygote and a triploid (3n) primary endosperm nucleus (PEN) respectively. Since endosperm is a product of the fusion of three haploid nuclei, it is called triple fusion

Embryo definition of Embryo by Medical dictionar

You can keep these cultures at 15-22°C. For culturing Sp embryos you must use temperatures from 12 to 16°C. You should see the cleavage divisions to produce the 2-, 4-, 8-, 16-, and 32-cell stages. After the 32- to 64-cell stage, the embryos begin to form hollow balls one cell thick, which are the blastulae Such a cell is called a haploid cell. Once the egg and a sperm fuse, the resulting zygote (fertilized egg) again contains double dose of the DNA and is called a diploid cell. Thus the resultant. Fertilization. (also called syngamy), the union of male and female sex cells, or gametes, resulting in the formation of a zygote capable of developing into a new organism. Fertilization is the basis of sexual reproduction and ensures the transmission of heritable characteristics from parents to offspring. In plants During the division of a cell, DNA replication and cell growth also take place. Although cell growth is a continuous process, DNA synthesis occurs only during one specific stage in the cell cycle. The replicated chromosomes (DNA) are then distributed to daughter nuclei by a complex series of events during cell division Directly after fertilization meiosis is resumed and completed with the extrusion of one set of chromosomes into a vesicle on the outside of the cell membrane. Extrusion of this second polar body (arrowhead) takes place around 7 minutes post-fertilization in wild-type (C) and fue zygotes(D)

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